In light of the above, the objectives of this book are twofold:
1. to present ecological economics and industrial ecology as a consistent body of knowledge using the case study of the IPP; and
2. to evaluate the IPP and to suggest ways in which it could be further improved from the perspective of this body of knowledge.
The conclusions from this study can be extended to other product-oriented environmental policies, as the IPP has only been used as a concrete illustration. The above objectives are novel in the sense that as yet, to the best of my knowledge, they have not been studied. Although some attempts have been made to establish the theoretical foundations of product-oriented environmental policies (for example, Ehrenfeld 1995; Oosterhuis et at. 1996; or Dalhammar and Mont 2004; see section 2.6), most authors have focused on practical issues related to these policies, such as the instruments they might use. Thus, this book not only presents what might be done to improve the IPP, but also provides the theoretical justification for these suggestions.