Integrated Product Policy – Contents

Integrated Product Policy

1. Introduction

2. The Integrated Product Policy (IPP)

2.1. Introduction
2.2. Origins of product-oriented environmental policies in the EU
2.3. EU product-related environmental policies
2.3.1. Directive on end-of-life vehicles
2.3.2. Directives on waste electrical and electronic equipment
2.3.3. Proposed framework directive on eco-design requirements for energy-using products
2.3.4. Thematic strategy on the sustainable use of resources
2.4. EU Integrated Product Policy (IPP)
2.4.1. Evolution
2.4.2. Vision
2.4.3. Approach
2.4.4. Instruments
2.4.5. Experience in different EU countries
2.5. Conflicting views on the IPP
2.6. In search of the conceptual background for the IPP
2.7. Summary and conclusions

3. Ecological economics

3.1. Introduction
3.2. What is ecological economics?
3.2.1. What is so special about ecological economics?
3.2.2. Why economics alone is not enough?
3.2.3. The First and the Second Laws of thermodynamics
3.2.4. Role of products in ecological economics
3.3. Primary considerations
3.3.1. Economic and natural systems coevolve
3.3.2. The Earth’s carrying capacity has to be obeyed – the problem of scale
3.3.3. Resources and energy are not created ex nihilo
3.3.4. Man-made capital cannot substitute for natural capital
3.3.5. ‘All production is joint production’
3.3.6. Can resources be completely recycled?
3.4. Secondary considerations
3.4.1. Institutional analysis of failures
3.4.2. Market failures
3.4.3. Resources and ecosystem services are not free
3.4.4. Internalization
3.5. Tertiary considerations
3.5.1. Systems perspective
3.5.2. The precautionary principle
3.5.3. Pollution and waste prevention
3.6. Summary and conclusions

4. Industrial ecology

4.1. Introduction
4.2. What is industrial ecology?
4.2.1. Definitions and goals
4.2.2. Industrial ecology and products
4.3. Theoretical foundations of industrial ecology
4.3.1. Elementary principles
4.3.2. Resilience and efficiency
4.3.3. The concept of waste
4.3.4. Companies and organisms, economy and ecosystem
4.3.5. Diversity and interconnectedness
4.3.6. Information and communication
4.3.7. Other issues
4.4. Applications of industrial ecology
4.4.1. Industrial metabolism
4.4.2. Pollution prevention, cleaner production and organizational design
4.4.3. Sustainable product chain management
4.4.4. Eco-industrial parks
4.4.5. Similar concepts – a critical review
4.5. Industrial ecology as part of ecological economics
4.5.1. Theory
4.5.2. Practice
4.6. Summary and conclusions

5. Life-cycle assessment (LCA) and eco-design

5.1. Introduction
5.2. Life-cycle assessment and eco-design: common foundations
5.2.1. Product life-cycle
5.2.2. Product sustainability indicators
5.3. Life-cycle assessment (LCA)
5.3.1. Functional thinking
5.3.2. LCA procedure
5.3.3. Applications of LCA
5.3.4. Limitations and potential for improvement
5.4. Eco-design
5.4.1. Eco-design procedure
5.4.2. Applications of eco-design
5.4.3. Example – design for durability
5.4.4. Limitations and potential for improvement
5.5. Further applications
5.5.1. Product-service systems (PSS) and similar strategies
5.5.2. Marketing eco-designed products
5.6. Summary and conclusions

6. Input-output analysis

6.1. Introduction
6.2. Elementary description of input-output analysis
6.2.1. Mathematical representation
6.2.2. Strengths and weaknesses
6.2.3. Traditional applications
6.3. Input-output analysis in ecological economics and industrial ecology
6.3.1. Types of input-output models incorporating the environment
6.3.2. Physical input-output tables (PIOT)
6.3.3. National Accounting Matrix including Environmental Accounts (NAMEA)
6.3.4. Material flow accounting (MFA)
6.4. Input-output analysis and life-cycle assessment (LCA)
6.4.1. Process-based LCA
6.4.2. LCA based on input-output analysis
6.4.3. Hybrid approach to LCA
6.4.4. Systems analysis – potential further extension of hybrid LCA
6.5. Summary and conclusions

7. Policy analysis illustrated with case studies

7.1. Introduction
7.2. Policy implications
7.2.1. The IPP bottom line
7.2.2. Objective 1: Making consumption ‘reasonable’
7.2.3. Reducing material consumption
7.2.4. Shifting to consuming function rather than matter
7.2.5. Objective 2: Organizing end-of-life management of products
7.2.6. Objective 3: Incremental improvement through eco-design
7.2.7. Enhancing competitiveness
7.3. Case study 1: the passenger car
7.3.1. Motivation
7.3.2. The car – what issues can a policy address?
7.3.3. Policy attempts to address problems related to cars
7.3.4. Implications
7.4. Case study 2: the Netherlands
7.4.1. Motivation
7.4.2. Environmental policy in the Netherlands – an overview
7.4.3. Products in Dutch environmental policy
7.4.4. Implications
7.5. Summary and conclusions

8. Conclusions